Citizens First

Improving Human Security in Pakistan

March, 2013-June, 2014 (OXFAM NOVIB) Bhatti Social Watch Advocacy Khairpur (As Partner)

Main objective ofthe Citizens First project was to improve human security in Pakistan.

Status:Project Completed


Citizens First: Improving Human Security” program aims to achieve durable peace and enable sustainable development, key drivers of conflict need to be addressed. This can include strengthening the social contract between government and society, based on the rule of law, human rights, and addressing the equitable sharing of resources, inequality and the marginalization of citizens. Our approach is to find ways to support and give voice to vulnerable groups such as women, and ensure their inclusion in political reconciliation processes. We also play an important role in holding duty bearers accountable for upholding the rights of civilians. In addition, people trust each other across different religious, sectarian, ethnic and cultural identities through fulfilling the obligations towards each other.

Project Overview

The project Citizens First is set of outcomes and intervention ranging from community mobilization for their rights, facilitating community group to interact and engage with local authorities for basic social services, promoting social harmony through cultural means including festivity and celebrating life jointly beyond religious, sectarian and ethnic affiliations as well as the atre music, folk dances etc. It also talks about democratization of public policies impacting peace and conflict in Pakistani social, political and
economic context.


The project interventions are aimed to strengthen civil society and support informed mobilization process for accountability of state institutions and government on international obligations particularly international covenant on Economic, social and cultural Rights, International covenant on Civil and political Rights, Un Security Council resolution 1325 with convention for Elimination of all kinds of Discrimination Against Women as bench Mark for women’s social, political and economic participation.

The Assignment:

ERADA (Education Research & Development Association) is partner with (OXFAM NOVIB) Bhatti Social Watch Advocacy Khairpur in a project “Citizens First: Improving Human Security in Pakistan”. The project includes Policy Advocacy and Community Mobilization for basic social services and fundamental
rights that are essentially required for Human Development and Advancement.

ERADA in consultation with (OXFAM NOVIB) Bhatti Social Watch Advocacy Khairpur has plan for development of Human Security Report for District Larkana of Sindh Province of Pakistan. We invite the Expression of Interest for the Assignment narrated briefly above from the experienced professionals with proven track record of working on similar kind of assignments.


It was also felt to actualize the human security model at the district level and a toolkit was developed through stakeholder brainstorming. From theoretical concepts to practical issues at the district level, this human security model moves beyond promising citizens ‘freedom from fear’ to also attaining ‘freedom from want’. It is to encourage pro-people planning and public policies and provision of basic social services through aggregating civil society demands at the local level and to stimulate dialogue, understanding, and engagement between the civil society and different levels of government. The purpose is that the governments become responsive to human security needs of the citizens.


It is expected that such moving from physical to human security is likely to build trust between citizens and the state in as tangible a way as the palpability of its demands for basic social services at the local level and not just advocating a state-level traditional security paradigm, which can be abstract and provocative due to its mega-narrative at times.


This relatively new conception of (human) security responds to needs of the citizens i.e., social services, basic human rights, peace & tolerance and gender.


Within its framework of the human security, the Citizens First project supports the local civil society organizations to address root causes of insecurity and conflict, by engaging in poverty alleviation, and improving the responsiveness of government to citizens demands.


Targeted number of people are educated and mobilized for social services, basic human rights, peace and tolerance, gender equality and basic social services.

Targeted CBOs and Community groups are able to engage with local authorities on public demands for basic social services.

Profile of District Larkana

Larkana or Larkano is the fourth largest city located in theNorthwest of Sindh Province, Pakistan. It is located in Larkana District and is a thickly populated city which is growing rapidly. In August 2000, Larkana celebrated its hundredth year of existence.


People rely on agriculture for livelihoods and no important industry is available in district Larkana spread over an area of Municipal Committee was 1,250 acres (5.1 km2), it had a population of 1,927,066 of which 28.70% were urban. Larkana’s guava and berries are famous both nationally and internationally, the annual output of the district stands at thousands of tons and Some 10 km away from Larkana city, sugarcane is cultivated and processed at the Larkana Sugar Mills (Pvt) Ltd.


Linguistically, the languages mostly spoken in this District are Sindhi, Brohi, Balochi, Siraiki and Urdu. majority of the Larkana population speak Sindhi (78.43%), followed by Seraiki speaking population of 5.04%, Brahavi 5.92% and Balochi 6.98%.


Religion, Majority of the population of the District is Muslim (Islam) 98.45%, Hinduism 1.42%, Christianity 0.06%, Ahmadi .06% and other 0,0%.

Why the Human Security Report, District Larkana?

Pakistan is confronted with a variety of on-going conflicts coupled with challenges of poverty and unequal distribution of wealth. In contrast, the state’s ability to counter violent, confrontational and criminal practices has receded and it is apparently compromising on delivery of basic social services. The access and quality of Education, Health and other Social Services are showing little progress as against our development targets in the wake of an increased population with youth bulge in numbers. This situation is more likely to exacerbate conflicts and take the state into a governance crisis, where it is gradually being unable to effectively negotiate resource distribution and transform conflicts among diverse stakeholders of the system.

The current situation in Pakistan calls for an in-depth analysis and detailed assessment of factors underlying human security. There is an urgent need to raise awareness on human security issues at policy level, and to build an institutional framework that will allow multi-sectoral reforms.


The human security report of district Larkana promises a comprehensive fact-based analysis of the government’s institutional capacity and policy commitment to tackle human security at the micro-level, the district. The facts and figures captured in the report will help the government to develop a framework for strengthening its institutions to effectively deal with and formulation of a policy towards human security. Additionally, there has been an effort made to take the human security debate to the district level; so as to make the desired policy relevant with the grassroots needs.


As an output of the project, entitled, “Citizens First: Improving Human Security“, the present report documents the situation of district Larkana, Sindh province. By analyzing social services spending in the public sector i.e. Education, Health, Sanitation and Safe Drinking Water, Youth Development, Social Protection and Local Practices and Conflicts, it identifies gaps both in macro-level public planning and district-level performance of social services delivery. Developed through a consultative process based (workshop and in-depth interviews), the report will help in awareness raising and mobilization of common masses to raise their voices for fulfilling their rights and to make state accountable for this at the immediate and tangible level, the district, in this case. It also helps policy makers to efficiently plan and allocate financial and human resources at the micro-level; so that they can develop and implement policies and programs which ensure human security in the country.

Aims and Objective


Preparation of Human Security Report for District Larkana of Sindh Province, ERADA (Education Research & Development Association) was established in 2008 to make the move in social development activities in Sindh, Pakistan. ERADA facilitate such communities to represent their issues through group formation, media campaigns, documentaries and social theaters etc. For attainment of its vision the organization generates quality information; create space for wide range of perspectives and voices as well as to promote participation in public discussion and informed citizenship.


The purpose of the “Human Security Report” is;

·       To provide actual ground situation supported by data as well as trend analysis of previous year’s reports, to concerned authorities on issues related to Education, Health and Clean Drinking Water and human development.

·      Analysis on the basis of last 4 years’ trends to reflect what changes are being observed in the past four years i.e in education, health, Clean Drinking Water, infrastructure and law and order in Larkana.

·        To develop common understanding on Human Security by relating it to basic social services and human development.

·    To consolidate and document the data and public perception in the Larkana district of project interventions regarding basic social services and human development.

·       To develop a resource/reference material for advocacy groups and other research institutions for district of project from the province of Sindh.

·       To provide actual ground situation supported by data, to concerned authorities on issues related to social services and human development.


·       The Researcher should have professional experience of research on basic social services particularly in Sindh

·        Knowledge of Sindhi and understanding of cultural context will be given preference.

·        Understand the concept of “Human Security”

·        Know the process to collect data for Community Based Knowledge Management Techniques.

·        Learn about indigenous methods of transferring knowledge and documentation of indigenous knowledge.


Data sources:

Following sources of information are identified for data collection in the toolkit prepared for the purpose.

Primary sources

·        Personal interviews

·        FGDs

·        Questionnaires / survey

·        Semi-structured interview

Secondary sources

·        Economic survey of Pakistan

·        Statistical years book

·        Gazettes

·        Annual Development Plan of Punjab

·        District budget

·        Management information system (Health & Education)

·        Research institute

·        Media reports

Conclusion and Recommendations

Needless to say that many civil society organizations, government institutions and private stakeholders are in some way engaged with aspects of human security in district Larkana. They need to be connected to share and review their respective activities on periodical basis.


Taking officials and representatives of the line-departments will not be an easy job, but is rewarding and worth working on. A list of illustrative actions is as following:


·        Sharing the Human Security Report of District Larkana with public and policy stakeholders.

·        Connecting civil society and government line-departments by setting up planning meetings on at least quarterly basis.

·        Documenting a register of visits by hub members to civil society, government and private bodies.

·        Releasing periodical updates on hub members’ individual meetings for the I prospects of joint actions and information resource sharing.

Improving the Quality of Basic Services

  • information availability to relevant organizations working on basic services.
  • Credible information sharing on education, health, clean drinking water and sanitation, physical
    infrastructures, social security/protection and basic services in district Larkana.
  • Highlight integrated approaches to basic services and their linkages with poverty and vulnerability.
  • Training of civil society and relevant organizations on Right to Information (RTI) legislation of Sindh and on practical steps to access official information under this law.
  • Promotion of a culture of peace. 
  • Meetings with elected representatives on issues of demand generation and awareness raising to access easy delivery of basic services.
  • Set-up rapid and joint missions to probe peace and security issues in the district.
  • Support government departments in their outreach and public participation programs especially on education and health issues and help them disseminate public service messages. Organize talks, rallies, campaigns, seminars and public gatherings to raise awareness about district human security issues.
  • Involving youth as volunteers for awareness campaigns and creating opportunities for their interaction on social, development and human security causes. 
  • Ensure that women are integral part of the human security initiatives in district Larkana.

Participation in Public Planning and Budgetary Process

  • Ensure that civil society is involved in public planning and budgetary process.
  • Ensure that district budget office releases Statements of Citizens Budget for easy understanding of the district budget.
  • Ascertain that the district manages a function website containing relevant information for public use.

 Program Development

  • The collaborative action should be properly documented and disseminated. This will help in district-specific program development. This process of evidence based documentation will prove an excellent and credible base for a program on human security that is relevant to the needs of citizens of Larkana The guiding principles of such a human security programs are (i) people centered, (ii) comprehensive, (iii) multi sectoral (iv) context specific, and (v) prevention oriented. It will involve five phases: PHASE I: Situational Analysis; PHASE 2: Mapping Needs, Vulnerabilities and Capacities; PHASE 3: Build Protection and Empowerment Strategies; PHASE 4: Implement in a participatory manner, and PHASE 5: Human Security Impact Assessment.
  • The present Human Security Report in hand fulfils needs of phases 1 and 2 fully, and partially the 3rd phase for Program Development on District Larkana.